Qitmeer 公开课 一:meer为何选型BlcokDAG!(Qitmeer Open Class I: Why MEER chose BlockDAG!)

Lawrence:我是Lawrence,Meer社区和Meer DeFi社区的小伙伴,大家好,因为受到社区的邀请,我会从今天开始连续四天给大家讲一讲,Qitmeer 底层的一些技术和知识以及我们在技术选型中间的一些思考。希望大家能够对Qitmeer网络以及底层公有链的技术能够有更深入的了解,今天的主要讲的MEER为什么选择BLOCK DAG这项技术,其实Qitmeer网络在17年开始启动,从17年底到18年3月份都是在做技术选型。

团队当时会想是选哪一种技术路线能够适应未来的发展,能够满足区块链不可能三角或者能够突破区块链不可能三角?!当时,Qitmeer团队的技术人员、基金会以及想在Qitmeer网络上做商业应用的商业机构一起进行了很长时间的探索设思,有的说就直接选POW或者选区块链这种结构(Block Chain);有的说选平行链技术(现在波卡用的技术);也有的提议选择二层链的技术,底层公链就沿用比特币或以太坊,重点在二层去做扩容或者在链外去做扩容;这些方案大家都讨论了,也分析了利弊,最终Qitmeer技术选型为Block DAG(去中心化扩容)技术。

Block DAG技术及发展历程

Block DAG是在DAG这个基础上延伸出的一种新的概念,最早BLOCK DAG的概念提出者是以色列有个实验室DAG Labs, 他们最先在2016年的时候就写出了DAG技术的这个论文,通过论文的方式讨论或者论证了区块链或者底层公有链在安全和区中进化的前提下可以提高高性能,这种提高的方法是不损失安全性、不损失去中心化再来提高性能,这种选择是遵循了中本聪共识或者说比特币的共识的前提下做的选择,大家为什么要追求安全性,追求去中心化?然后还要追求高性能呢?就是因为区块链不管它是链式结构还是图式结构,本身就是一个分布式账本系统,要想达到分布式就要牺牲效率,要想达到去中心化或者多中心化就要牺牲效率,同时又因为要做到商用规模级的应用,对效率会有极大的要求。区块链底层只是做一个资产储备或者是资产交易的时候对TPS的要求不高,但是变成一种业务系统或者一种平台性系统,还是要去做支付业务的时候,那必然对底层网络的性能就要求有很大的TPS或者很高的TPS,对网络要求就很高。

当时在和基金会、商业合作伙伴以及技术人员自身进行理论研究对比之后,Qitmeer选择用DAG有向无环图这种方式去突破去区块链的不可能三角,但DAG这种技术也不是从一出生就被选择或者就是BLOCK DAG,从区块链或者加密货币的发展史上看从2012年到现在的2022年,这十年时间里DAG本身的技术已经历过三个时代的发展:

第一个时代是以埃欧塔 MIOTA和字节雪球(Byteball)为代表的第一个DAG技术,tps很高,但是这种DAG技术最大的缺点就是中心化,特别容易中心进化;

第二时代的DAG技术是由Fantom,以太坊为代表的DAG技术,是一定程度的避免了中心化,但并没有提升性能,比如以太坊是一个特殊结构的DAG,只是没有让这个叔块和父块这个膨胀率并发把所有的叔块阉割掉,其实以太坊本身就是一个DAG,它的Ghost(Ghost协议)就是DAG中间的主链;

第三代DAG的技术发展就是现在比较知名的项目Coinflux和Qitmeer都用的Block DAG,Block DAG也和Block Chain一样,也有区块,由区块去打包信息,承接上一个区块的信息然后往下传,这种技术是在继承了前人的理论和以前的区块链项目的经验之上,然后选用了Block DAG,Block DAG这种技术能够在保证去中心化,保证安全的前提下,去提高TPS。

为什么这句话说起来很简单,但还是一直要追求在保证安全和保证去中心化前提下去提高TPS?这是因为区块链不可能三角这个难题是全世界的公链项目都在解决,但是在解决的过程中大家不是顾此就是失彼,比如拜占庭协议(Pbft协议),大家所熟知的拜占庭协议的项目有很多,小蚁(NEO),Libra,还有在一段时间内火过的项目,拜占庭这种协议就是在牺牲的去中心化而单纯去追求效率,包括DPOS这种共识机制在内也一样是以牺牲去中心化或多中心化,然后去提高效率。这种方法的选择没有错或者说也可行,只是Qitmeer网络没有选择,因为每个项目的定位不一样。

Block DAG 技术模型选择

Qitmeer网络从一开始就选择了Block DAG,除了技术选型对技术的性能追求之外,还有一个很重要的考虑因素就是Qitmeer基金会的从业人员的资源和未来瞄准的市场就是想做支付这个领域,尤其是小额支付、跨境支付领域,因为不管是加密数字货币还是区块链网络,最核心的功能还是转账支付功能,作为一个支付网络不管解决小额支付问题还是解决跨境支付问题的核心是要做一个支付网络的基础设施或底层网络,首先这个网络一定得安全。

虽然比特币效率低,以太坊性能度高,它们的底层也足够的安全。转一笔帐,可以转账慢点,甚至可以几天才到,账转网络可能效率很低,甚至手续费很高,但是资产不会转丢,如果转一笔账,还给转丢了,那谁还敢用那条支付网络?比如说大家现在用支付宝用微信包括用银联支付,是很快很方便了,假如有一天你转账转丢了,或者转账系统失误了,再方便再好用你还敢用它吗?不管对于机构用户来说,还是对于普通用户来说,宁肯转账慢一点,效率低一点,手续费高点,也不能把钱转丢了,所以,对于做支付这个定位,底层网络首先追求的是安全,其次,为什么要追求去中心化?追求去中心化是因为公有链网络,如果只是作为底层资产Token来进行转账交易或是进行资产转移,那在保证底层这个网络转账的安全可以有很多方式,用中心化或者用半中心化,比如DPOS这种共识机制。

但是Qitmeer的技术架构和将来的应用场景并不是要拿底层的MEER去做支付,因为真正做实际生产生活中的支付,一定是稳定币做支付,价格不能是大幅的涨跌,好比今天我在一家餐厅吃饭,使用支付宝,微信去付款,如果支付宝,微信里面钱的价格是波动的话,老板是没办法收我钱的,因为吃饭前一碗面20块钱,吃完饭,价格跌了成19块钱了,那老板怎么收钱?所以,Qitmeer的网络的这个小额支付的支付结构,不是用底层MEER本身去做支付,而是基于Qitmeer网络上面的发各种稳定币,尤其是法币稳定币,甚至是央行数字货币这种形式来去做支付。

希望更多的机构,更多的组织来Qitmeer网络上来发行合规的稳定币来做小额支付、跨境支付,来解决金融普惠性,那大家都来这条网络上做应用的时候就会担心这个底层网络已经被某些机构所控制,所以,Qitmeer底层网络必须要保持足够的去中心化或是足够的多中心化,而不是控制在某个人或者某个组织的手上,POW只要出块节点足够的分布,那就没有人能足够的控制这条底层网络。

Qitmeer通过POW保证底层网络的安全,因为底层网络的出块节点、全节点在全球范围内足够分布,那这条网络就会越安全,越去中心化,大家才在这上面使用越安心。

Qitmeer 应用场景

Qitmeer团队正在给佤邦做移动支付系统。佤邦是缅甸的一个高度自治区,经济体量大概相当于我们中国的一个中部省份的一个县级市的GDP,但即使是这样一个60万人口的地区要在一个网络上运行他们的支付系统,也不希望这个支付系统是被某个人或被某个组织所控制的,也希望这个底层网络是能够安全去中心化的。

那这个支付系统泰国、越南、柬埔寨、缅甸任何一个国家将来都能用么?或者说只能是一个非洲的南亚的某个国家能用?这个我来分析一下,不是他们非要用这个系统,只因为用了区块链支付系统,能够让他们用极低的成本去解决一套支付系统的建设以及能保证这个支付系统在稳定性和安全性的前提下还保证这个支付网络不被某个人或某个组织所控制。无论是某国家或某组织想要在一个网络上去做货币发行或者是支付系统对一个国家还是一个政权或者对一个大的金融机构都是非常严肃的事情,因为,铸币权是一个主权政府的核心权力之一,把支付系统放在公有链网络发展,考虑的第一条不是性能而是安全和可控性,再考虑的是效率和成本问题。

尼日利亚、非洲发行央行数字货币,也先考虑了联盟链IMB这种方式,因为他们发现要是马上使用开源网络就有可能出现不可控事情,先得从联盟链开始,再进一步慢慢通过稳定币过渡到公有链上,或者说公有链稳定币和联盟链共同结合的方式来推进他们的央行数字货币发展。支付系统建立在底层网络,首先的第一要素是安全,接下来是去中心化,在这两个前提下,才去做性能的提升。

Qitmeer如果只用传统的Block Chain的解决方案,不管用的是POW共识还是POS共识,本身并没有在保证安全和去中心化前提下实现高性能,又如何去和现有的公有链网络去竞争呢?所以,当时结合Qitmeer的商业资源和对技术路线的研究,要想在未来的竞争中有生存空间或者有发展前景,那必须在技术上有突破,最终才选了Block DAG,除了安全和去中心化,还要根据将来的网络生态上的应用场景和资源,不是盲目选择高精尖技术,而是因为小额支付或跨境支付这个业务场景有巨大的潜力,在未来应用场景中,区块链技术或公有链技术能够生存和发展,必然是网络本身有价值。

Qitmeer的价值要能应用在小额支付和跨境支付这个领域里,要做什么?首先在支付里要做小额支付,除了安全、足够去中心化,就是要想办法提高性能。为什么要提高性呢?因为要发展,普通资产的转移对效率的要求不高,即使是跨境业务对支付的效率要求也不是特别高,只是对成本要求。但如果是要做日常支付,做小额支付,必须既快还要便宜。

就现有的情况下,大部分人手里用的USDT已经切换到TRC20上或者切换到BSC链上,它的性能已经得到很大的提高了,但为什么大家依然还要去追求TPS,那就是因为除了安全和去中心这两个前提之外,一定是转账速度要快,同时,成本要低。

举这个例子,出门买任何东西,商家都能接受USDT做支付,那大家会使用么?想象一个场景,在楼下的便利店吃早餐点做转账支付,用ERC20的USDT,是不是你付账转账需要比较长的时间,最快是一分多钟,万一网络堵塞大概是几分钟甚至十几分钟或是几个小时。商家也不让你在交易未完成时离开。如果是买小额产品,比如买一瓶水,这瓶水的成本价格是两块钱,你用的是ERC20的USDT,现在转一笔帐用两块钱买瓶水,手续费大概得几十块钱到几百块钱,那你还会用ERC20络的USDT来支付么,你肯定不会用了吧?!

高效率的支付体验

做小额支付,对底层公有链必须是有两个核心要求:

速度足够快,即使不能达到支付宝,微信这种秒级,但用户体验也不能太差,要是几十秒甚至几分钟都不到账,那是做不了小额支付的;第二,小额支付转账的手续Gas费需要足够低。很多用户玩家以前在中心化交易平台里使用U转入转出,每次交易扣的手续费都是U,所以,真正参与DeFi之后,用户会知道每一次转U消耗的GAS费并不是U为计算单位,而是以每条网络自己的底层币来计算消耗手续费,就跟现在的用户在BSC上转账一样,所有转账的U扣的费用都是扣的bnb。

但使用中心化平台进行交易的时候,为了方便使用计算,平台整体都是消耗U,不管是一个还是十几个U,扣除用户U的成本已经覆盖住本身的gas或者覆盖住bnb的gas了。真正在一条网络上使用转账功能一定是用底层网络的gas消耗,那这个消耗的gas是扣给谁呢? 在链上的转账会把很多笔转账打包成一个区块放到一个区块里,让矿工挖出来奖励给矿工,所以,不管是PoW、PoS还是DPos网络每一笔转账的gas费,都是奖励给了在该条网络上记账并把这条信息广播到全网的那位矿工。

按照一个区块一MB大小来计算,一个区块大概能包含正常的转账信息是1000笔。现在的BSC大概三秒钟能处理1000笔转账信息,这种TPS对于日常用户量少的这个情况下大概够用,但在面向几万用户甚至上千万用户同时使用这个支付系统的时候,那这条网络的性能必须要足够的高,才能保证正常的使用。区块链网络本身就是分布式系统,它的TPS,它的性能,不是取决于服务器的配置,也不是取决于带宽,而是取决于这条网络本身的性能,分布式节点之间的同步效率,所以,天生就不可能达到像中心化的微信、支付宝那个速度,不会像双十一的支付宝能达到100多万,春节抢红包能达到一百多万的速度。

在目前的底层功能技术里在保证安全和去中心化的前提下,能把TPS提升到千的实用已经是很了不起的事情。很多普通用户不了解TPS的概念,光听别人吹牛说这项目的tps能达到几万,哪个tps能达到几十万的这种说法是不负责任的。要谈tps一定是网络的设定是怎么保证安全、去中心的前提下再提升tps是多少,没前两个设定,只单纯的谈TPS有多高,那可以去和支付宝、微信支付去比,中心化的手段去达到百万tps。

底层网络的安全性

从去年到今年有个特别火爆的项目叫Solana,用的是POH时空证明、时间戳证明的共识机制,这种共识机制本身没有问题,但在处理数据的时候,实际上Solana并不是一个区块链网络或者不是一个分布式网络,而是一个中心化的项目,就所有的交易信息或者网络处理信息,首先是全部汇集到Solana自己的一个超级服务器上,再通过这个超级服务器处理数据才把这些数据再分配给它的出块节点,然后再从出块节点的信息分配给它的验证节点上。Solana底层的出块节点的超算服务器是有十几台,但核心的处理数据服务器只有一个,用户在使用Solana的时候就认为1秒钟能达到1万,一万五tps,再回看Solana从去年到今年已经出现三次宕机事件。正常的分布式网络或区块链分布式网络,是不存在宕机这一说法,只会是这个节点不出块了就不能跟上这个分布式网络去同步数据了,那是这一个节点出了问题,但不能代表整个网络的出现了问题。如果Solana网络出现问题,它所有的数据或所有的节点就都不出块了,那数据就都不能同步了,这并不是一个真正或者严格意义上的分布式网络。

用户现在使用Bsc的网络过程中,经常会出现转账失败或者一直显示正在打包,在Bsc链刚上线的时候,有很多开发人员笑说′你的加密货币会卡在服务器了。′这是什么意思呢?因为BSC的底层网络是超级节点DPoS模式,是21个节点,而且,这21个节点控制权全部在Binance系统,大家在Bsc链上做各种DeFi、做各种DAPP或做各种应用的时候,普通用户是不关心它底层网络的这个安全性和去中心化,一个普通用户只要转账速度快,成本低,够用就行。

但为什么没有大型的机构在Bsc链上放很大的资产?泰达公司稳定币发行了八九百亿没有在Bsc链上发行,甚至,泰达公司把在波场链上发行的USDT都销毁了200亿又转回在以太坊网络,就是通过使用的过程中发现无论是波场还是Bsc,底层用的都是DPOS,21个超级节点模式,项目方要做恶就可以把上面的某一笔大额交易双花了,应该是去年的某个项目方的资产在BSC链上可以被冻结,这种方式好还是不好,各有各的说法,看法,但是违背了一点就是区块链的去中心化的这种机制,就因为真正的控制权还是在Binance系统,不做恶不代表是不能做,只是现在的光环做背书,让大家更容易相信,但如果真的做恶了,用户又怎么办呢?

用户对区块链的信任就是源于这种安全的由分布式网络构建有共识机制控制的网络,而不是说谁人多厉害?大家相信的是这种机制,是代码运行的规则,这种规则不是靠某一个人想改就能随便改,想控制就能随便控制,而是所有在这条网络里面有参与权的人来共同决定这个网络的安全,用分布式网络而构建起来的这种博弈机制来保证这网络安全。而不是去相信所谓的某些中心化机构。

以太坊网络市值做这么高,网络上面有这么多的生态应用,不管是DEFI、NFT、稳定币还是链游各种应用,又包括特别贵的NFT转账、合成、交易,用户还是愿意在以太坊上转账,就是因为以太坊的底层是完全去中心化的高度分布式网络,是足够的安全、去中心,大家在以太坊上多花点手续费,转账速度慢点,都忍受,总比在些不太安全的网络上要可靠得多,因为不安全的网络出了事故,被攻击或者网络底层做恶造成的损失,损失不是80%或者60%还是40%,就是资产直接归零了。

Qitmeer网络底层的Block DAG,就是因为Block DAG能够在PoW这种共识的基础上能保证底层网络安全、完全去中心化或是尽可能的去中心化的前提下,再去追求tps,只有这不可能的三角在同时实现,才使所具备的这些商业资源在去中心化底层的基础设施上运行。

底层网络的研发

现在Qitmeer网络才是刚刚起步,会有很多人不明白,就有了这些问题:为什么Qitmeer底层网络能做这么长时间?这个底层网络要开发这么久?为什么不选DPoS?为什么不搞个侧链?为什么不搞个其他共识?

Qitmeer团队在进行底层技术研究到选型的选好,还进行了开发、做了工程实现,实现之后并进行了一年半测试网的测试,用真实的数据跑出了tps,真实算力跑出来的转账交易,实际的转账速度还进行了测试,全方面的大量测试,得出了性能才上的主网。哪些项目网络在实验室架上两个服务器节点,由节点之间相互转账一下这种测出来的TPS是根本没法用的。

以太坊网络的整个生态价值能做到这么高,不仅仅因为它的智能合约平台,它的智能合约平台上的所有的价值能够保证相互之间的转账不出错,能够安全到达,不被别人盗取,就因为它有个强大的底层PoW网络,如果没有,那以太坊上面运行的各种(稳定币、DeFi、去中心化交易平台、借贷、NFT、Gamefi)应用都有可能瞬间就归零,就像一个帝国大厦的地基打得特别牢固扎实,就能支撑上面盖起摩天大楼,如果网络底层不会足够的安全,去中心化。那上面的业务发展再繁荣昌盛,可能都是昙花一现,大概出一次资产的安全事故,就可以把上面的所有资产归零,所以,底层网络对于一个公有链网络的发展是至关重要。

Qitmeer团队在基金会的支持下共同努力花了这么长时间,把底层网络建造扎实就是为了给上面的应用,不管这种应用将来是以底层网络本身的UTXO转型给政府去使用的,还是给智能合约平台去使用,都能够承载起这条公有链网络的价值。只有底层网络地基打的牢固,安全性才好,去中心化才有程度高,上面的tps才有意义,这些基础设施有了意义,才能滋生和发展起生态。

二层EVM的融合

有很多人担心,MEER的价格高了,将来能做什么?这些事情根本不用担心。Qitmeer现在的架构足以完全支撑出1000亿甚至一万亿美元的一个生态系统,因为它的底层是完全去中心化(通过PoW这种有了比特币十年验证的共识机制),Qitmeer能保证安全的同时,还具有在安全和去中心化前提下的高性能,将来不管怎么发展,都能够支撑起这个网络上的生态应用,也能保证生态应用的价值,在随着底层网络的起步,运营的壮大,网络二层的生态也会繁荣发展。

现在这个Meer DeFi只是Qitmeer的EVM没有集成之前,拿出基金会用于生态激励的一部分MEER做的流动性协议产品,为MEER EVM的生态启动来铺垫,不是做另一个MEER。Meer DeFi只是Qitmeer网络上EVM生态的开始,现在DeFi市场里有各种各样的项目热点,但Meer DeFi不是一个土狗项目,是用流动参与获得的是Qitmeer主网底层MEER。

BSC从排名50外直冲到前5;Solana从排名200外冲到前10;LUNA锁仓量市值达到300多亿,这些项目就是我前面讲的都有新公链的概念,就是因为EVM的应用,带动了它们生态的发展,带动了底层代币的锁仓和持币用户,带动了生态,进而把它们整个价值推高。

最迟在2022年上半年,Qitmeer网络的EVM就会上线,上线以后Qitmeer EVM可以承接那些运行在以太坊网络上智能合约的各种应用,那Qitmeer EVM上的应用跑起来了,但Qitmeer主网的每年产量就这么点,不管是Qitmeer Gas费的需求,还是抵押MEER铸造稳定币的需求都挺大的,价格肯定就会被带动起来。那Qitmeer还没有开始正式运行EVM,现在目前在BSC上做流动性协议的尝试,只用了短短十五天的时间就做到了持币地址上千,整个TVL达到300多万,这就证明社区用户对Qitmeer技术的认可,也是Qitmeer底层技术这4,5年的沉淀给了大家的信心,但是这只是Qitmeer生态的刚开始,我个人认为连开始的这个起步都算不上。

Qitmeer EVM上线以后的最大核爆发点在哪里?就是Qitmeer底层网络安全的底层技术,在分布式底层公链的基础上,去给那些国家,地区,金融机构或是主权政府做跨境支付、小额支付系统,然后这些国家和地区的稳定币能够在Qitmeer的EVM上实现智能合约交互,将来Qitmeer网络会成为各个国家法币的各种稳定币之间的交换平台,而这种交换平台不依赖于某个人某个组织还是某个中心化系统,只是靠智能合约这种去中心化的方式能够实现各种稳定币之间的相互交换,那就能达到Qitmeer做新一代支付网络基础设施的目标了,Qitmeer的价值才能真正发挥出来。到了那个时候,大家才可能体会到为什么Qitmeer在底层要追求安全性、追求去中心化、追求高性能 ,以上就是关于Qitmeer网络为什么选型Block DAG的简单分享。


Qitmeer Open Class I: Why MEER chose BlockDAG!

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In response to our community’s invitation, we’re starting a four lecture series today. The lecture is about some of Qitmeer’s core technologies and expertise. Part of the topic covers some of our thoughts in the middle of technology selection as well. By the end of the lecture series, we hope you will have a deeper understanding of the Qitmeer network and the underlying public chain technology.

We were thinking about which technological path would be most adaptable to future evolution. This path might either intersect with or break past the blockchain impossible triangle. With the technical team, the foundation, and many commercial groups, we conducted a long exploration and discussion on the commercial applications of Qitmeer Network. Most of them said that we should choose POW or blockchain. Some said that we should choose parallel chain technology. Some individuals advocate, for example, that we pick this two-layer chain technology, with the base public chain following Bitcoin or Ether, like the technology we are now employing in Poca. We focused on the second layer to accomplish scaling, or scaling outside the chain; we explored all these possibilities and weighed the benefits and drawbacks before deciding on Block DAG.

About Block DAG Technology and History

Block DAG is on top of this foundation of DAG. The original BLOCK DAG concept proposed by a laboratory in Israel named DAG Labs was published in 2016. This paper by DAG Technology discusses that it can be the blockchain or the underlying public chain. This is under the premise of security and evolution in the zone. It is possible to enhance high performance without sacrificing security or decentralization and this decision is a choice made on the premise of following the consensus of Satoshi Nakamoto or the consensus of Bitcoin.

You might think why should we pursue security? Why should we pursue high performance? Why are we pursuing decentralization? It’s because the blockchain is, after all, a distributed ledger system, whether it’s a chain structure or a graph structure.

The distributed ledger system establishes that to achieve dispersion, decentralization, or polycentricity, efficiency must be sacrificed to reach commercial or scale-level applications. When your blockchain bottom only does an asset reserve or asset transaction, it may not require high TPS. However, when you transform it into a commercial system, such as a platform system, or when you want to make payments in this type of network, the network needs are quite high. That’s why we were working with our foundation, business partners, and our own theoretical research. We decided to employ the DAG directed acyclic graph technique to break through the de-blockchain impossible triangle after a comparison. The development of DAG has gone through three stages from the history of blockchain or cryptocurrency development. The technology of DAG itself has gone through three eras of development, from the beginning of the 12th year to the first decade of the present time.

The first era is to IOTA and Byteball as the representative of the DAG technology. The TPS is very high, but what is the biggest drawback of DAG technology is that it is particularly easy to centralize. The second generation of DAG technology is Fantom. Ether is the representative of the DAG technology. The DAG technology has a certain degree that avoids centralization, but the performance isn’t improved. Ether, for example, is a DAG unique structure, but it did not allow the parent block of this expansion rate to neuter all the uncle blocks at the same time. In fact, the Ether is DAG itself, and its Ghost (Ghost protocol) is actually the main chain in the middle of the DAG. The following summarizes the third generation of DAG technology development. Block DAG is also the same as BlockChain because it also has blocks. The blocks store information and send it along by taking over the information from the preceding block. We have inherited the theory of our predecessors and the experience of previous blockchain projects. Then we chose Block DAG, a technology that can guarantee decentralization and security under the premise of Block DAG. Why do we say this is easy, but why do we keep pursuing to improve TPS on the premise of ensuring security and ensuring decentralization? This is because blockchain cannot possibly triangulate this puzzle. Public chains projected all over the world are solving it but are in the process of solving it. There are many BFT projects, such as the one we know as NEO and Libra, which has some domestic or has been hot for some time. The DPOS consensus method is the same as the Byzantine protocol, which sacrifices decentralization with the goal of efficiency. This method of choice is not wrong. It’s just that we don’t endorse it. Why? Because every project is positioned differently.

Block DAG Technology Model Selection

In addition to our technological decision, we picked Block DAG from the start for Qitmeer as a network. Aside from technical performance, another important consideration is the resources of Qitmeer Foundation practitioners, and the future market we aim for is the field of payment, particularly micro-payment and cross-border payment because the core function of a crypto-digital currency or blockchain network is still the transfer payment function, but as a payment network. Whether you go to solve the problem of micro-payment or solve the problem of cross-border payment, your core is you want to do a payment network infrastructure or underlying network. Your network must be bitcoin secure although with low efficiency. Although the performance degree of Ether is high, the underlying layer is secure enough. Assume I send you a large quantity of money. It may take a few days for the money to arrive, the account transfer network may be ineffective, and my costs may be excessive, but my money will not be lost. If I transfer a sum of money, but there is a possibility that my money can be lost, who would dare to use your payment network? For example, we currently utilize Alipay and WeChat, as well as UnionPay payments; certainly, it is really fast and easy, but would you continue to use it if your money was lost or transferred incorrectly one day? I’d rather transmit money slowly, whether for institutional or ordinary customers, even if the efficiency is lower and the charge is greater.

We choose to not lose money, so for the positioning of this payment, the underlying network is the first pursuit of security. Secondly, why should we pursue decentralization? The pursuit of decentralization is because of the public chain network, just as your underlying assets. We guarantee the underlying network by using this Token to transfer, trade, or move assets. I can safeguard the transfer in a variety of ways, including centralized and decentralized methods. Use a centralized office, such as DPOS, or a consensus process.

Qitmeer’s technical architecture and future application scenarios don’t mean taking the underlying MEER to make payments. Actually, you do the actual production life of the payment. It must be a stable coin currency to be able to do the payment. For example, if I do this in micro-payment, then I eat in a restaurant, if you use Alipay to WeChat, and then convert WeChat to Alipay, the price is fluctuating. As a result, the boss has no way to charge you money. You eat before a bowl of noodles 20 yuan, after eating your price falls to 19 yuan. Then how can the boss collect money and how can the user pay? So, Qitmeer’s network of micro-payment requires our underlying network or its payment structure. It doesn’t reflect that the underlying MEER itself is doing the actual payment but, it is based on the Qitmeer network to issue a variety of stable coins. Stable coins, specifically fiat stable coins, or even the central bank digital currency in this form to do the payments. As a result, the underlying network, in addition to security, requires decentralization, because the network in the future will not be a person or an organization in a nation. We hope that more institutions and organizations will come to the Qitmeer network. We expect that they will offer compliant and stable goods, as well as micropayments, cross-border payments, and financial inclusion initiatives. When everyone comes to your network to conduct applications, it’s not an issue that your underlying network isn’t governed by one or more institutions. POW, as long as the block nodes are sufficiently distributed, then no one can sufficiently control your underlying network. Through the POW consensus mechanism, results for the block nodes to further decentralization. When the underlying network and the node distribution is very uniform, and the block nodes and full nodes in the global have enough distribution, then the network will be more and more secure, which will result in it being more decentralized. As a result, everyone can use it even in a region or a small country.

Quitmeer Application Scenarios

Let’s take the WA State, we are doing this mobile payment system for WA State. This state is a highly autonomous region in Myanmar, and its economic volume is about the same as the GDP of a county-level city in a central province of China. Even for such a county-level autonomous region with a population of 600,000, it wants to run its payment system on a network. It also wants the underlying network to be secure and decentralized. If WA can use it, will Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia or Myanmar be able to use it in the future? It is not because they have to use this system, but because with the blockchain payment system, we can let them solve the construction of a payment system at a very low cost. We can then use the blockchain network to ensure the stability and security of their payment system. This is not controlled by a person or an organization. As a result, everyone can be assured to play above you. My country or organization is thinking that I want to do my currency issuance or payment system on a network. That is a very serious matter for a country and a regime, or for a large financial institution because the right to mint money is one of the core powers of a sovereign government. I can put my payment system on a public network or a public chain network, that is the first thing that must be considered. First of all, you have this thing security, controllable or not. Then, the next consideration is efficiency followed by the cost issue. In the first big countries like Nigeria and Africa, they issued a central bank digital currency and they also considered the coalition chain IMB this way. Although they found this central bank digital currency is very difficult to use and also very slow, they also found that if you use the open-source network, there may be certain uncontrollable things. They may also begin with the coalition chain and then gradually transfer to the public chain via the stable coin, or they may combine the public chain stable coin and the coalition chain to promote this item. Therefore, the first element of the underlying network for a payment system is security. Then the next is polycentric, and then to do the performance improvement.

If Qitmeer only uses the traditional BlockChain solution, no matter whether you use POW consensus or POS consensus, you do not achieve high performance with security and decentralization. So how can you compete with the existing public chain network? We combined Qitmeer’s business resources with our research on the technical route and finally chose Block DAG. In addition to security and decentralization, we improved the performance that is according to your future networks ecosystem application and resources. Not to blindly choose high precision technology, nor to purely show off the technology, but because this business scenario, or this business scenario of micro-payment, or this business scenario of cross-border payment has huge potential. Blockchain technology, if used in future application scenarios, has a relationship with this real business. Whether blockchain technology or public chain technology can survive and develop, you inevitably have to give value to this network, and your value or Qitmeer’s value. We look at this application scenario, that is, in the field of micro-payment and cross-border payment. In the payment to make micro-payments, you must identify ways to increase performance in addition to security and decentralization. Why do you want to improve performance? It is because if you are doing an underlying asset, the transfer of your assets you do not have high requirements for efficiency, and then you cross borders, even if you do cross-border business. You are not particularly demanding on the efficiency of this payment, you are only demanding on the cost. But if you want to do daily payments or do small payments, you have to be both fast and cheap. So, if these little businesses near you can take USDT for payment, why would you use it to buy things? If you can accept USDT for payment, why would you go out and buy anything if you can accept USDT for payment? In fact, most of us have moved to TRC20 on the wavefield or the BSC chain in the current circumstances, and its performance has substantially increased. But why do we have to go after this TPS? It is because, in addition to your security and decentralization of these two premises, transfer speed must be fast, and at the same time your cost should be below.

Consider the following scenario: If your USDT can make daily payments, payments at your downstairs convenience shop, and payments at your breakfast location, then you can pay a bill to someone. If you go to a restaurant, if you use USDT with ERC20, it takes longer to pay the bill. Time would be at least a few dozen seconds or even a minute or so. If the network is clogged, your ERC20 USDT may be clogged for a few minutes or even a few hours. If you have an ERC20 USDT and are eating at a restaurant or buying anything at a convenience shop, and you pay someone else for an extended period of time. You may have bought a bucket of instant noodles, but you’re paying someone else for this and you have to wait so long afterwards. You definitely won’t want to, and neither will the convenience store collector, right? This is the case if you still use this method in buying in your local convenience store. Another example, if you buy a bottle of water, the cost of your bottle of water maybe two dollars. If you still use the old ERC20 USDT, and you now transfer two dollars, your costs may have to be dozens of dollars, or several hundred dollars if it is expensive, you will not use this USDT network to pay for it, and you will absolutely not use it.

Highly Efficient Payment Experience

So to do micro-payments, the requirements of the underlying public chain must have two core requirements. The first is that your speed is fast enough. Even if you can not reach Alipay or WeChat in seconds, the user experience can not be too bad, you can not say that it takes dozens of seconds or even a few minutes to account, which you can not do micro-payments. The second is that your micro-payment transfer fees, GAS fees need to be low enough.

Many users before just in the centralized exchange head Use U to transfer in and out, each time the exchange deducts your fees are deducted from the U, so you do not feel involved in DeFi after. You’ll know that the GAS fee you consume for each U transfer is not calculated in U. Rather, your fee is calculated in terms of each network’s own underlying coin, just like our current users transferring money on BSC. All your transfers above the transfer of each batch of U, the network deducts the fee, but when you are using centralized trading, the exchange has ease of use and calculation. Overall, it is subtracting you a U, two U, or a dozen U, and it is utilizing the expense of deducting your U sufficiently to already cover his GAS. The GAS fee is not deducted from the Ethereum foundation. Also, the BNB GAS fee is not deducted to the coinan smart chain team or to the exchange or to Zhao Changpeng, but on our every single transfer on the chain. So, whether we’re using POS, POS, or DPOS, our transfer fees go to the miners who create the blocks and broadcast them to the network, and our GAS costs go to the miners who maintain the books and broadcast the information to the network. Based on a block size of one MB, a block can contain roughly 1000 normal transfers.

Let’s take our current BSC, the BSC is about one block every three seconds, then one block can contain about 1,000 transfer messages, which means about three seconds to process 1,000 transfer messages, but this is the TPS. For our daily or low user volume, this case may be possible to use, but if like for tens of thousands of users using hundreds of thousands of millions or even tens of millions of users at the same time using your payment system, then the performance of your network must be high enough. To ensure that this network can be used properly, our blockchain network, which is itself a distributed system, its TPS, its performance. It does not depend on the configuration of the server. It’s not on the bandwidth, but on the performance of the network itself, that is, the efficiency of synchronization between your distributed nodes. So, it is inherently impossible for it to reach the speed of centralized WeChat and Alipay. Like our Double Eleven Alipay can reach more than one million. Like our Spring Festival red envelope can reach more than one million. The current underlying functional technology can be put to ensure the security and decentralization of the premise which can do TPS on the thousand is already a very impressive thing.

Many people or many of us ordinary users do not understand the concept of TPS. TPS can reach more than 100,000 and that TPS can reach tens of thousands is basically a false statement. If you want to talk about TPS, it must be to talk about the settings, that is, how can you ensure the security of how to ensure that the premise of decentralization you then talk about how much TPS. If there are no two settings in front of you, just simply talk about how high the TPS is. Then you can go and Alipay then WeChat payment to compare, you can be able to reach a million.

Security of the Underlying Network

We all know that from last year to this year there is a particularly hot project called Solana, which uses a consensus mechanism of POH, a time-stamped proof. The consensus mechanism of time-stamped proof is not a problem, but Solana is not a blockchain network or a distributed network, but a centralized project. This means that all transaction information or network processing information is first gathered on Solana’s own super server, and then through this Solana has only a dozen supercomputing servers and only one core data processing server. So, when we use Solana, say it can reach 10,000 in one second or it can even reach 15,000 to 16,000. We also see that Solana has been down three times from last year to this year. According to the normally distributed network or the official blockchain distributed network, there is no such thing as downtime. Only if your node is not blocked, you can’t follow the distributed network to synchronize its data. But if the Solana network is down, if there is a problem that all the data or all the nodes are not out of the block and the data cannot be synchronized, it is not a real or strictly distributed network. At the same time, we are now using the network bsc. It isn’t true that during your use of the bsc network, you often fail to transfer money or say that you are packing, or even when the BSC chain first went live we developers would laugh and say that your cryptocurrency would get stuck on the server. What does this mean? It is that its underlying network is supernodes. DPOS model is 21 nodes, and all these 21 nodes are controlled in the hands of Binance. We do not care about the security and decentralization of the underlying network, because I am an ordinary user. I just want to transfer money fast. I just want to have it at a low cost. But why are there no large organizations that put a lot of assets on the BSC chain? Why is it that the TEDA stable coin has issues? Because they discovered through the use of wavefield or BSC, because the underlying layer of it is DPOS, 21 super node model, no large institutions put a lot of assets on the BSC chain, or why TEDA issued 80 or 90 billion of stable coins without issuing on the BSC chain, and even TEDA destroyed 20 billion of USDT issued on the wavefield chain and transferred it back to the Ethernet network.

If Sun Yuchen and Binance want to do evil, they can double-spend a certain large transaction above you. The project party’s assets can be frozen on the BSC chain, is this way good or bad? We can all have our own perspectives, but at the very least, it breaches the blockchain’s decentralized system, because the true control remains in Binance’s hands? They don’t do evil doesn’t mean he can’t do it, it’s just that they have an aura and endorsement which makes it easier for people to trust them. But if they really want to do evil, what can you do with them? Everyone’s trust in the blockchain is derived from this security, which is built by a distributed network with a consensus mechanism to control the network. We all follow this consensus mechanism and run in accordance with this consensus to generate this trust, rather than saying who is more powerful. How powerful is Sun Yuchen? Or is Zhao Changpeng more powerful? What we believe is the mechanism and the rules of the code, which are not controlled by a single person who can just change them if he wants to. The community, all the participants, all the people who have the right to participate in this network, together decide the security of this network, but rely on our distributed network and build up this game mechanism to ensure the security of this set of networks rather than believe in what we call. Some centralized institutions or some important institutions so is the Ethereum network. Why is the market capitalization so high, it has so many ecological applications on it. Whether it’s DEFI or NFT or stable coin or chain tour, various applications. Including the particularly expensive NFT transfer, NFT synthesis, and NFT transactions, people are still willing to transfer money on the Ether, because the underlying layer of the Ether is completely decentralized. It is a highly distributed network. It is safe enough and decentralized enough, so people prefer to spend more on Ether. I can live with a little slower money transfer, but it is also more reliable than those unsafe networks, because the unsafe network has a security incident, either by an attack or by doing evil to cause you the loss is the difference between yes and no, not that you will lose 80%, 60%, 40%, or directly to zero. This is why the Qitmeer network underlying the choice of Block DAG, because Block DAG can be based on our POW consensus to allow us to the underlying network. To begin, verify that the underlying network is secure, next guarantee that it is entirely decentralized or as decentralized as feasible, before pursuing TPS. Only when we achieve this impossible triangle at the same moment will we be able to map or migrate to this decentralized underlying infrastructure to operate the business apps above, as well as the business resources we have or have. The value of this network can only be realized when the volume of operations and the efficiency with which everyone operating on it is increasing.

R&D of the Underlying Network

Right now this network is just getting started. Many people do not understand why we want the underlying network to last so long. The underlying network development takes so long to develop, saying that we are scratching, or that we are dilly-dallying or deliberately trying to delay, why don’t we choose DPOS why don’t we get a side chain? Why don’t we get a different consensus? We have been researching for so long in the bottom layer after the selection is made? The development was done to do the engineering implementation. After the implementation, we carried out a year and a half of test network testing. The actual data run out of the TPS actual arithmetic power runs out of the transfer transactions and the actual transfer speed was tested to test out our performance. We dare to go on the main network, and many public chains or many projects say that the TPS just sets up two server nodes in the laboratory, and then nodes transfer money to each other, this kind of measured TPS can not be used. The only one in the Ethernet network is the POS, which has a TPS of 15–20, and the value of the whole ecology is so high. It is not only because of its smart contract platform, it can guarantee the transfer between each other without error, to ensure that they can arrive safely. The reason is that it has a powerful underlying network. If there is no strong POW network on the bottom of Ether, these various applications running on top of Ether, no matter if it is a stable coin, DeFi, decentralized exchange, lending, NFT, GAMEFI various applications may go to zero instantly. It is like an empire-building, its foundation is particularly strong and solid. It can still support you to build a skyscraper on top. If your bottom layer is not secure enough, there is not enough decentralization. Then, the business development above you is prosperous and flourishing again, you may also be a smoke in the eye or a flash in the pan because a security incident can bring all your assets to zero, and there is no security in the blockchain. There is no such thing as saying that my assets may go wrong, and after a security incident, I can still keep 60% or 30% left. We have spent so long to build the underlying network with the support of the Foundation and the joint efforts of our community to build such a solid network for the purpose of our applications above. Whether our applications will be transformed into the underlying network itself for the government to use or if we use it for a smart contract platform, it can support our underlying network or support the value of our public chain network. Only when you have a solid foundation of the underlying network, your security is good and your decentralization is high, then your TPS above is meaningful and your infrastructure of these things is meaningful, you can breed and develop the ecology.

Layer 2 EVM Convergence

Many people worry about what to do when the price of MEER is high and what MEER will do in the future. These things do not need to be concerned about, Qitmeer, since the architecture’s foundation is entirely decentralized, but also completely through the POS consensus mechanism, it is now completely capable of supporting an ecosystem worth 100 billion or even a trillion dollars. Through Bitcoin, ten years of verification of the consensus mechanism can guarantee security. At the same time, we also have the security and the premise of the district division of high performance. Qitmeer network on the ecology, no matter how it runs, it can carry the value, it can support the ecological applications on this network, and also to ensure the value of this ecological applications. With the start of the network underlying the network, the operation grows and the ecology of the second layer of the Qitmeer network will also prosper. The Meer DeFi is just the beginning of the EVM ecology on the Qitmeer network. The Meer DeFI we’re working on right now isn’t a project; it’s merely a component of the MEER we’re using for environmental incentives from the foundation’s primary network currencies to create a liquidity protocol product before the Qitmeer EVM is merged. Although there are other projects and hotspots in our DeFi market today, Meer DeFi is not simply another dog project; it is a Qitmeer project in which we are leveraging liquidity to participate. The Qitmeer primary network, which underpins MEER, will be operational by May 1 at the latest. It can execute all types of smart contract apps that can operate on Ether after going live on the Qitmeer network’s EVM. When these apps run on the Qitmeer network, the need for Qitmeer is the same as the demand for GAS fees, collateral, or even MEER minting stable coins will considerably drive MEER demand, but the Qitmeer main network produces such a little number of MEER each year.

The MEER price will definitely be greatly stimulated. Let’s not discuss his underlying security, decentralization and decentralization, but simply that EVM has driven BSC from the top 50 to the top 5, Solana from the top 200 to the top 10, and LUNA’s market capitalization has reached more than 30 billion, all of these projects have the concept of new public chains, as I mentioned earlier. The application of EVM has driven the development of the ecology, the locking of the underlying tokens, the users of the underlying tokens, and the ecology of the public chain, which in turn pushes up the whole value.

Qitmeer has not yet officially started running EVM, we are only trying to do the liquidity protocol on BSC. We used just 15 days to achieve thousands of coin-holding addresses, and then the entire TVL reached more than 3 million, which proves the community’s recognition of the technology we do. At the same time, Qitmeer’s underlying technology of 4 or 5 years of precipitation has given everyone confidence. But this is just the beginning, I think that even the beginning of this is not considered, Qitmeer’s EVM online after this biggest nuclear explosion point where?

It is the underlying technology of Qitmeer’s underlying network security, which is based on the distributed underlying public chain to these small countries, small regions. These financial institutions or sovereign governments to do cross-border payments, to do micro-payment systems, and then these small micro-payment systems or the stable coins of these countries and regions can realize smart contract interaction on Qitmeer’s EVM, and what we can really do in the future is Qitmeer’s EVM. What we can do is that the Qitmeer network will become a platform for the exchange of fiat stablecoins or various stablecoins of various countries. This exchange platform does not depend on a person or an organization or a centralized system. Instead, the smart contract relies on this decentralized way to enable everyone to achieve the mutual exchange between various stable goods that will be able to achieve the goal of Qitmeer. This goal is to do a new generation of payment network infrastructure. At that time, Qitmeer’s value can really play out, at that time we may be able to appreciate why we have to pursue security, the pursuit of decentralization, the pursuit of high performance in the underlying. This is why I briefly share with you today why we chose Block DAG for the Qitmeer network.