Qitmeer 公开课 二:meer为什么要做小额支付!

传统金融体系

今天主要给大家讲一下Qitmeer为什么要做小额支付。简单普及一下,支付系统是由好几个板块组成的,传统的支付系统是由中央银行清算系统,加上商业银行的结算系统和支付工具,共同组成一个支付网络(网银、支付宝),任何一个国家的中央银行都是它的铸币单位,通俗点就是钱是谁印的。中央银行是负责印钱和放钱或者称为批发钱,商业银行是日常生活中普通老百姓接触比较多的,属于零售业务。它们的流程是中央银行把钱发给或批发给商业银行,商业银行才能基于钱发展做信贷授权、保险、理财这些业务,然后到终端用户的时候,用户会通过各种支付工具和银行之间打交道,各种银行之间相互转账由中央银行的清算系统和商业银行的结算系统再加上终端的支付工具,才能构建起一套完整的支付网络。

比如我个人在招商银行有个账户,小明在工商银行有个账户,我从我的招商银行给小明的工商银行转5万块钱,不管是用支付宝、微信、包括将来出现的DCEP还是用网银,我给小明转5万块钱这件事情,在支付工具这个层面上的钱可能两秒钟三秒很快就到了,在没有移动支付工具之前,大家大部分是通过银行汇款再到通过网银转账,有了移动支付工具之后,大家相互之间转帐的效率更有提高,速度更快了,比如大家现在用了移动支付工具,我给小明转这5万块钱可能很快就到了,但到了真正的商业银行之间的结算以及中央银行的清算是需要很长时间的,而不是像我给你转一笔账只要三秒、五秒就完成的了。

(传统完整的支付网络运转流程是这样:我账户的招商银行的营业网点—支行—分行—省行—总行—经人民银行或者央行的清算—工商银行总行—省行—分行—支行—小明账户所在的工商银行营业网点。)

过程仅仅是银行之间内部相互转账:

这个账是在银行营业网点内,可能是当天银行就对完账;

是从银行营业网点到支行,可能得需要一周对完账;

要是从银行营业网点到省行,可能一个月对完账;

如果是从银行营业网点到总行,可能需要一个季度对完账。

每家银行的对账时间都不一样,但是如果是从我的招商银行到小明的工商银行转这笔5万块钱的帐从支付工具这个层面上讲,可能三、五秒钟就到了小明这个工商银行这个卡里,这个普通用户感觉很明显,但这两家银行之间要把这个账对清楚,就需要中央银行用大概一年才一次的清算。

所以,传统银行的支付网络能够快速的在两个用户之间在同家银行或者在不同银行之间,这个转账速度是能够很快的,但是结算工作和清算工作少则需要几天,一个月,多则可能需要一年才能在跨行之间把这笔账户彻底结算清楚,因为只有中央银行清算才能在年度清算过程中算清楚今年整个工商银行给招商银行总共转多少钱?或者是多转了,还是少转了,由中央银行来做这个清算工作,我们大家在国内支付、境内支付或者是普通银行汇款之间常用的一种支付手段、方式,普通用户只感受到的是终端支付工具之间的转账,但很少人能了解到结算和清算工作是这么一个流程。

区块链带来的好处

同家银行的支付系统都有不同的账本,总行的账本,省行的账本,支行的账本,分行的账本。然后,不同银行之间也有账本,对账工作得需要中央银行清算系统才完成,所以,区块链支付系统对比传统银行数据库系统最大的优势区别就是转帐即清算。为什么转账即清算呢?不管在哪一个区块链网络,比特币网络、以太坊网络、BSC网络还是Meer网络,转一笔账,举个例子,从我的USDT地址给小明转价值5万元的USDT,这边转完账,那这笔转账信息就被区块链网络里51%的节点通过这个转账节点的打包,然后进行了全网广播,在被全网51%的节点记录好这笔转账信息之后,这笔转账的清算工作就完成了。

这是区块链支付系统比起传统银行系统改进和提高的效率,在移动支付系统出来以后,对传统的纸质结账或者是对传统的网银结账效率是极大的提高了在支付这个环节,但区块链支付系统比起传统银行的效率提高的点在于清算系统这个环节。我通过区块链系统给你转一笔账,我的转账和我的清算工作几乎是同步的,转账即清算,那我通过传统的银行系统给你转账,支付是支付,转账是转账,而且结算工作和清算工作可能需要几天,几个月,甚至一年才能完成。

大家要搞清楚做区块链支付或者做区块链系统在支付领域的应用场景或者应用价值核心是什么?!就是传统银行的支付需要借助支付工具结算系统和清算系统共同才能组建成这个支付网络,它的转账很快,结算可能会很快,清算会很慢。区块链支付系统是转账即清算,转账在区块链网络里经过大多数节点确认之后,这笔账就清算完了,这笔业务就清算完了,区块链网络做支付对传统的支付网络(银行结算系统)的改进作用就在于此,这才是核心的区块链支付系统的价值所在。

Qitmeer为何要做小额支付?

Qitmeer为什么要做小额支付呢?虽然现在有信用卡体系,国际汇款体系,有现代化的金融商业银行的这一套体系加上移动支付工具成为了快速普及、发达的移动支付体系,但是大家只是看到在中国移动支付和东北亚移动支付的先进发达,其实还有大量欧美国家的移动支付还不是很发达,甚至很多经济不发达的国家和地区,就连现代化的金融支付体系都很不完善。

全世界大概有70亿人口,但至少有25亿-30亿的人口是连银行卡都没有。这些国家和地区的人口并不是不想使用现代化的金融工具,不想使用现代化金融支付体系,而是建立起一套完善的、高效率的、现代化的支付体系,需要强大的经济支持,强大的贸易需求以及强大的技术支持才能维护和支撑起这一个支付系统。中国GDP按今年的统计已经突破200万亿,那这么大的金融支付金额靠的什么?靠的是中央银行清算系统加商业银行加移动支付加支付工具共同组建起来的,能支撑起整个中国经济运行的核心脉络,只有金融系统和支付系统完善、安全,才能支撑经济系统的流畅运行让经济更加活跃,但是支撑起这么大一个经济体运行的金融系统,背后是要付出巨大的成本。

先不说中央银行加商业银行这一个体系,就拿招商银行来举例,一家招商银行需要一个总行,省行,市行,支行,分行;营业网点需要ATM机,运钞系统;网银也需要app;这多的银行支付体系对中国有这么大经济体量是能支撑起来,但对于很多国家和地区,它的经济体量没有这么大,经济规模也非常的小,是根本支撑不起招商银行这么大一个支付系统的运营和维护的,要想建立起一套完整现代化的,甚至是移动支付体系的支付系统,首先就需要高额的运营成本,但那些国家地区的经济体量又很小,是没办法支撑起这么大一个支付系统,而且要想支撑这么大支付体系或这么大一个支付系统,要么经济体量足够的大,要么支付系统运营成本足够的低,才可能去支撑起来。

我们中国发达的经济大省,比如广东、山东、江苏,浙江,这些经济大省的GDP在全世界范围内,基本上都能排到前50名,甚至是已经超过了好多国家的GDP。但是对于世界上很多国家和地区来说,可能一个国家的GDP都没有我们中国一个省,没有一个市,甚至没有一个准一线城市的GDP高,又如何能支撑起这么大支付体系呢?

他们也想拥有现代化的金融体系,但又承担不起这么高的成本,那怎么办呢?区块链支付系统就是最好的解决方式,为什么呢,因为区块链系统不需要建立起中央清算系统,也不需要建立起商业银行的结算系统,甚至不需要运钞车,金库,不需要这一切的体系,只需要基于一套公有链安全高效率的系统在上面做一个数字货币钱包,对用户进行实名KYC身份证核对就可以在DAPP里面运行合规的数字货币,或者说合规的稳定币,加上对DAPP运营维护就可以支撑起一个支付体系。

各位试想一下,如果一个经济不发达的国家或者是地区没办法建立起像我们中国商业银行这么大一套支付体系。比如招商银行,但能不能做一个类似于招商银行的app支付系统呢?不基于商业银行系统,只基于区块链系统,首先开发成本和运营维护成本就大大降低了。那这个国家或地区的网络由谁来维护呢,不是靠这个国家或地区来维护,而是靠全世界的矿工或靠全世界的节点和这个维护节点的人来共同维护,这样的成本还能有多少?!

建一个招商银行这么大一个支付支付网络,保守估计建设和运营成本起码得是1亿美元起步,相比下,在区块链上发行稳定币加一个钱包的成本就很低很低了,为什么萨尔瓦多能基于比特币支付呢?因为并不是基于比特币本币来做支付,而是基于比特币的这个闪电网络来做的小额支付体系。(虽然闪电网络的小额支付体系是链外的,不足够的安全,但已经比我们传统的金融系统的商业银行的总行,支行,营业网点,运钞车这一套系统的成本低得多。)

为尼日利亚央行提案

Qitmeer基金会在尼日利亚做提案的时候碰到这样的问题,在尼日利亚央行提出如何能用现代化的支付体系帮尼日利亚这个国家做一个支付移动支付系统,当时去给尼日利亚央行提案的除了Libra、华为,Alipay,还有很多家,给的方案分别是这样的:

Libra方案 尼日利亚就不要用本土的央行数字货币或者是法币系统直接用Libra发行的超级主权货币。

华为方案 尼日利亚用户全部使用华为智能手机,因为华为手机里面自带一个钱包。

Alipay方案 :建立开发运维一个像支付宝的一个支付网络硬件,软件和维护成本起步大概一年就是1亿美金。

Qitmeer方案 :基于安全,高效的公有链网络,做个DAPP在上面发行该国的央行主权数字货币,或者说主权货币的稳定币,再对用户进行KYC,大概成本是20万美元就可以把这个事情搞定。当时真是把在场所有人都惊讶了。

尼日利亚央行最后没有采用Qitmeer的方案,不是担心Qitmeer的技术,是因为尼日利亚央行认为主权货币需要他们央行来控制这件事情,暂时还不能放在这个公有链网络上,公有链网络的发展和应用,他们还需要再观察,目前先选择联盟链的方案,后面还是会尝试在公有链上发行稳定币来进行测试再应用,毕竟,目前全世界发行央行数字货币的国家没有几个,人民银行DCEP也还在测试中,还没有正式推出。据了解,尼日利亚的央行数字货币在推出之后,去使用的时候效果并不理想,因为效率,也可能是因为安全性,目前已经宕机两次了;瑞士央行发布了央行数字货币的白皮书,目前还没有发行。

就基于区块链系统的支付体系,对一个发达国家是高性能的信息化的工具,但是对于经济不发达国家和地区就是提高经济运行效率,改善金融普惠性,加强中央银行货币主权非常有效的手段,所以,发达国家,移动支付系统可有可无,有发展,只是锦上添花,没发展,经济依然可以运行,有银行卡体系、有信用卡,有网银体系了;但是在不发达的国家和地区,有了区块链支付系统,维护的成本是超级低的,还安全稳定。

Qitmeer网络的小额支付就是定位服务在这些金融基础设施不发达的国家和地区,因为在这些国家和地区移动支付系统对他们就是刚需,Qitmeer网络底层是完全去中心化的,PoW共识来维护网络的安全,做小额支付具有技术优势。

区块链支付系统解决不发达地区金融体系问题

Qitmeer基金会大概给16个央行做了金融支付体系的提案,也在一些国家正在做积极的探索和尝试,稳定的区块链支付系统,能使原来不发达国家和地区从没有金融体系直接过渡到有稳定安全的支付体系。当然,央行数字货币的发行,不仅仅是技术问题,还是政治问题。所以,Qitmeer网络发展的路线就是在这些国家和地区先发行法币稳定币,再和这些国家的支付公司、银行、金融机构合作,发行受央行监管的稳定币,用稳定币的方案来解决不发达国家、地区小额支付的问题。现在,小额支付这些应用是关系到国际民生的,关系到老百姓日常生活的方方面面,而且是每个人都必须要用的。

不管是山寨币或是狗狗币还是主流币,现在全球的加密数字货币用户大概就是不到2亿,但是全球人口有70亿,这数据就证明了加密数字货币在总人口比例里还是小概率,如果Qitmeer仅局限于加密数字货币这个圈里,共识肯定比不过比特币,智能合约肯定干不过以太坊,但在小额支付领域,一旦有一个国家或地区能够使用基于Qitmeer网络的稳定币来做移动支付,来做小额支付,那Qitmeer的流通就会是天文级数字的增长。

佤邦的这个移动支付系统在当地普及刚开始使用的时候,可能当地的民众根本不知道Qitmeer是什么,也不知道Meer是什么,但是他们要使用这个系统就必须备好GAS费(MEER)。为什么呢?好比在以太坊上,或者说在其他网络上面玩某个币或者参与某个DeFi项目,你可能不炒ETH,但你玩它的各种代币,只要在链上转账,就得需要这个ETH本币做Gas费。试想一下,佤邦60万人都使用这个基于Qitmeer网络这个支付系统,是不是意味着Meer持币流通地址将会大量增加?这还只是相当于一个县级经济体的规模。假如Qitmeer网络的支付体系能在尼日利亚发展,尼日利亚大概是1.87亿人,就算尼日利亚1%的人使用了这个支付系统,用户量级都会是千万级的,而且,全世界还有这么多经济技术不发达的国家和地区。

区块链世界中的稳定币

只要在Qitmeer网络上有3个以上的主权数字货币或是基于法币的稳定币,用于移动支付,用于小额支付,那Qitmeer网络的用户都是天文级数字的增长。

那这些持币用户地址的增长意味着什么?可以看下全球的持币有效地址数据,比特币2000多万个,以太坊大概1亿多一点,它们目前的应用还局限在加密数字货币这个层面,没有突破加密数字货币这个圈子;再看另一组数据:在加密数字货币里使用货币的交易额或者单个币种交易额最大的是谁?是USDT和USDC,目前它们加起来的发行量大概就是1400亿美元不到,但交易额是多少呢?2022年的USDT数据还没出来,2021年的USDT大概是7万多亿的交易额。仅是USDT这一个稳定币的交易额已经远超于现在加密数字货币前几名总额的市值了。为什么会有这么大交易额呢?是因为USDT目前充当的是加密数字货币和法币的交易介质,大家进出加密数字货币都用的是这个稳定币来进行交易,这仅仅是在加密资产圈这几千万是接近1亿的人群里使用。

如果USDT或某一种稳定币能像微信和支付宝一样,用于在日常生活中的小额支付,交电话费,买菜、买面、买油,日常支付相互之间转账,会是什么样体量的交易额?这种体量的交易额跑在Qitmeer网络上的发展空间是极其大的。Qitmeer定位小额支付不是要超越谁或者是改变谁,是因为小额支付这个市场足够的大,由高性能网络加上合规稳定币所构建的小额支付系统在这些不发达国家和地区是刚需,这种刚需是建立在一个完全去中心化的网络上,任何一个国家和金融机构都可以在这条网络上使用,而这条网络的底层是不被某个人、某个机构或者某个国家所控制,还有将来基于Qitmeer网络的可扩展性和去中心化带来的这种信任能使它极大的被使用起来。

Qitmeer定位小额支付的根本原因是在底层网络的完全去中心化和安全的前提下,选择在这种有刚需场景的地区和国家去推广和使用,才能够让Qitmeer底层网络这个价值发挥出来,真正的让这项技术能够为更多的国家和地区的人们解决金融普惠性问题,还能帮他们节约成本提高效率,能帮这些这些国家和地区的中央银行来提高法币的使用率,维护他法币的安全性,那Qitmeer网络不管是底层的coin价值还是网络性能,都能够得到非常大的使用和提高。Qitmeer网络性能目前是在链上,就是纯链上的性能,按现在的数据估计是能达到3000甚至达到6000的tps,如果用户多了,网络能不能承载几千万,上亿甚至上10亿人的移动支付问题或小额支付系统的问题呢?Qitmeer除了现有的链上使用Block DAG技术,同时,还可以做闪电网络这种技术(链上加链外),让网络的性能再到10倍甚至不止是100倍的放大。

Qitmeer团队真正是要做基于高性能的网络应用,追求底层完全去中心化,追求安全,在这个基础之上去做小额支付,是想让这个技术真正得以应用,只有这种性能和应用场景结合起来,为不发达国家和地区的人们解决了支付系统刚需问题。奔着这个方向,技术属性具备了这个能力,那在上面的应用会随着时间、随着网络的应用,实用用户不断去增加,在将来再被其他国家、地区、金融公司机构去使用,到那个时候,Qitmeer网络的价值才能够被真正的发挥出来,或者说能够被真正的使用那个体现出来。

新一代支付网络基础设施

Qitmeer定位做下一代支付网络的基础设施。这种基础设施的作用并不是要把这个coin炒多热,而是要基于网络之上做合规的法币稳定币,符合当地政策监管,能解决当地政府,解决当地国家,或者解决当地金融机构的问题,而且这种解决方案是完全去中心化的,是成本极低的,是效率极高的去解决问题。相信这些技术和应用,肯定会在某个国家和某个地区率先被实用起来,进而带动更多的用户进行使用,最终,这条网络上会聚集大量的稳定币相互结算的应用,大量的小额支付的应用。

可能要到那个时候大家才能理解为什么Qitmeer团队在底层网络上要追求安全、追求去中心化、追求高性能,就因为高性能一定是在安全和去中心化前提下做的事情,没有了安全,没有了去中心化直接谈高性能,那大概率是被某些机构和某些组织所控制了,只有在安全和去中心化环境提高性能才有可能让分布在不同地区的各种金融机构各种国家来使用落地,在资产不会被某些机构和某些组织所控制的时候,大家才能放心使用。对比传统支付体系下,这个系统实用又是极低的成本,还很高效率的解决那些金融机构的刚需问题,是真正好用的支付工具,那价值才能被发挥出来。

当然,Qitmeer网络不是只能用来做支付,只是网络的架构和这种性能在做小额支付的时候,优势是最突出的,性价比是最好的,但不代表Qitmeer网络只能做小额支付,或者说只能做跨境支付,因为严格意义上讲,任何一个加密数字货币,只要具备转账功能就能做支付,但真正要做小额支付就必须具备两个条件,安全,高效,在这必备的前提下,还要成本低才能便于做小额支付。

Qitmeer 底层Gas费

有朋友问′将来Qitmeer网络的用户多了,交易量大了,coin价涨了还能保持高性能么?还能保持低成本么?′关于这些问题,团队是做过估算的,Qitmeer的底层coin (MEER),假如涨到1万¥(约1500$)。底层网络的二层代币相互之间转账的Gas,小额的一笔转账成本大概是0.1¥。因为Qitmeer的Gas费消耗的标准最低是每笔是0.0000145(MEER),当然转大额的时候,手续费应该是会略高一点,但即使Qitmeer底层coin(MEER)涨到1500$,转账成本可能也是0.0000145(MEER),成本依然会很低,效率依然会是很高。

除了Block DAG本身性能之外,物理网络节点的硬件能够得到提升,它的TPS还能够增加,对区块大小进行了扩充,单个区块的打包交易量还能继续提高。

L ayer1+ L ayer2 扩容

即使在链上的所有使用办法已经用尽了,还可以和比特币的闪电网络一样做链上加链外(Layer1+ Layer2 ),闪电网络是把关键数据传到链上或每小时把关键数据传到链上,不需要所有的交易都实时上链,也能够极大去提高TPS,能用来做支付。

Qitmeer网络定位小额支付,不是盲目定位,是长时间的商业探索,经过技术架构和基金会的商业资源匹配之后,才选择定位在这个领域内去发挥作用的,Qitmeer网络小额支付的场景,并不是在发达国家,也不是在中国国内,主要是在金融基础不发达国家和地区,尤其是在“一带一路”这些国家,比如东南亚、南亚、非洲,这些地区新生人口多,智能手机的用户普及率比较高。

大家肯定会说智能手机发达?!怎么可能,是开玩笑吧!都觉得这些地方怎么智能手机发达,这可能是大家不了解的一个情况了,这就得要感谢中国的公司:

一家是华为,在这些国家铺设了大量基础设施的通讯网络基站,使这些地方的电信运营的网络条件非常好,3G、4G,甚至5G信号的非常好;

还有深圳的手机公司,传音和小米手机,尤其是传音公司生产的手机,在非洲,在南亚地区,销售得非常好,为什么呢?因为这些智能手机卖得很便宜,大概50$,最贵的可能就100$一部智能手机,多卡多待,照相美颜效果特别好,声音特别大。

因为华为的移动通信网络基础设施的建设,智能手机的普及,使得这些国家和地区能够快速的使用移动互联网,能够快速使用到现代化的通信工具,只要在这个基础上让用户下载一个钱包,进行了KYC就能扫码能转账,然后,开发一个DAPP应用就可以把这些国家和地区的移动支付工作推动起来,比起要做一个支付宝,做一个微信支付这样的系统,成本低太多了,在区块链系统做大概一个DAPP从开发到运营加上一年的维护成本也就是几十万美元的事情。

想要这些地方的国家和地区的人们用一张银行卡去存取钱,得要有商业银行,有总行、省行、支行、分行、网银,还需要有ATM机、运钞车,建立维护这一套体系的成本对于这些国家和地区是很难承担起的,即使能承担起这些成本,但经济体量和当地的GDP还是支撑不起这么大的投入,只有用区块链支付系统构建起来的移动支付系统,能让这些运营成本由公有链的维护者、矿工、节点,共同承担,这些国家和地区的人们只需要使用这个DAPP进行转账就可以。

那这种成本就非常的低,这些国家和地区政府在Qitmeer这条安全的高性能公链之上,发行的合规稳定币来解决移动支付系统建设,移动支付、普惠金融难题的成本非常低,这种支付系统和成本完全符合他们的预算,也完全能够支撑起他们做一个这样的支付网络,同时,除了底层网络的维护者,还有真正的商业用户,也有网络使用用户,有代码维护人员,大家共同组建成一条分布式的网络。可能网络代码开发者在欧洲,在美国,在中国,底层算力会分布在加拿大,在北欧,在南美,但是底层网络上面的使用用户可能是分布在非洲,在印尼,在南亚,在孟加拉,但大家都是共同在一个支付网络进行运行。举个例子,中国的某个矿工或北美的某个矿工,在打包交易的时候转的某笔账正是南美的某个咖啡豆的种植户正在转账售出咖啡豆,有可能是某酒店采买菜时的转账交易,这就是Qitmeer网络做小额支付真正的原因和真正看重要去应用的市场.

我相信Qitmeer网络这么扎实的底层技术做支撑,有Qitmeer基金会在这4年的商业探索,还有社区的共同推动,Qitmeer这条网络在小额支付领域内一定会开拓出一片天地,一定能够把这条网络的价值和商业应用和解决实际问题的这些优势结合起来,能够为更多的人们去解决金融普惠性问题,能够让这条网络的价值发挥出来,进而能让这条网络不断向前发展。


Qitmeer Open Class II: Why did Qitmeer choose the sector of micropayments

Traditional Financial System

Today, we’ll talk about why Qitmeer accepts micropayments. The central bank clearing system, as well as the commercial bank settlement system and payment instruments, make up the conventional payment system. The central bank of any country serves as the minting unit for this payment network (WeChat & Alipay). The central bank is responsible for printing and putting money called wholesale money, while commercial banks are more in touch with ordinary people in their daily lives and belong to the retail business. The money is processed in several processes. The central bank’s first responsibility is to transmit or wholesale money to commercial banks. Second, commercial banks can grow depending on the money they have to undertake credit approval, insurance, and wealth management. Finally, the end-user, who will interact with the bank via a range of payment tools, will move money between banks using the central bank’s clearing system and commercial banks’ settlement system, as well as terminal payment tools, to create a comprehensive payment network.

For example, I personally have an account in China Merchants Bank and my friend Xiaoming has an account in ICBC. I transferred 50,000 yuan from my China Merchants Bank account to Xiaoming’s ICBC, whether it is with Alipay, WeChat or the future DCEP or Internet banking. I transferred 50,000 yuan to Xiaoming and the money I sent to Xiaoming will be received by his account in 2–3 seconds. Using a mobile application to send money can be a headache too. Sometimes it can reach the receiver within a day or two because there are many authentication and security measures that are being run by the banking system. It will take a long time to have the central bank’s clearance.

(The traditional complete payment network operation process is like this: the business branch of China Merchants Bank of my account to branch to branch to the provincial bank to head office to by the People’s Bank of China or the central bank for the clearing to ICBC head office to the provincial bank to branch to branch to Xiaoming account where the ICBC business network.)

The process is simply an internal transfer between banks to each other. This account is within the bank’s business branch and may be reconciled by the bank on the same day. If it is from the bank’s business branch to the branch, it may take a week to finish the reconciliation. If it is from the bank branch to the provincial bank, it may take a month to finish the reconciliation. If it is from the bank branch to the head office, it may take a quarter of a year to finish the reconciliation.

Therefore, the traditional bank payment network can quickly finish the transaction between the two users in the same bank or between different banks, but the settlement work and clearing work will take a few days, a week, or a year. Only the Central Bank is allowed to give clearance to any bank under its supervision. It clears all the money inflows whether it is a terminal payment, domestic payments, etc.

Benefits of Blockchain

The book of the head office, the book of the provincial bank, and the book of the branch are the three books that make up a bank’s payment system. As a result, the most significant benefit of a blockchain is its speed and the ease with which assets may be transferred. It makes no difference which chain the user is on. Here’s an example: when you transfer using bitcoin, meer, bsc, eth, or another cryptocurrency, the transfer information is packaged by 51 percent of the nodes in the blockchain network through this transfer node, and then the entire network is broadcasted, and after the transfer information is recorded by 51% of the nodes in the entire network, the transfer is cleared.

This is the difference between the blockchain payment system and the traditional banking system in terms of improvement and efficiency. The efficiency of traditional paper checkout or traditional online banking checkout is greatly improved in this aspect of payment after the mobile payment system is released, but the efficiency of the blockchain payment system compared to traditional banking is improved in this aspect of the clearing system. When I transfer an account to you using the blockchain system, my transfer and clearing work are almost synchronized, and the transfer is cleared quickly, whereas when I transfer money to you using the traditional banking system, payment is made, the transfer is made, but the settlement and clearing work may take days, months, or even a year to complete.

The main benefit of utilizing blockchain in the field of payments is its speed and efficiency; once the transfer has been validated by the majority of nodes in the blockchain network, the account and business will be cleared.

Why did Qitmeer choose the sector of micropayments?

Why is Qitmeer interested in micropayments? Despite the existence of a credit card system and an international remittance system, a modern financial commercial bank system combined with mobile payment tools has become a widely used and developed mobile payment system. Only China and Northeast Asia have advanced and established mobile payment systems. In truth, mobile payment is not well established in many European and American countries, as well as many impoverished countries and areas. Many nations and regions with developing economies lack access to a sophisticated financial payment system.

There are about 7 billion people in the world, but at least 2.5–3 billion of them do not even have a bank card. It’s not that these countries and regions don’t want to use modern financial instruments and payment systems; it’s just that establishing a comprehensive, efficient, and modern payment system necessitates strong economic support, strong trade demand, and strong technical support to maintain and support it. According to this year’s figures, China’s GDP has surpassed $200 trillion. So, what underpins such a massive number of financial transactions? The core pulse that can sustain the functioning of the whole Chinese economy is formed by the central bank clearing system, commercial banks, mobile payments, and payment instruments. Only a faultless, safe financial system and payment system can support the smooth operation of the economic system and therefore make the economy more active, but supporting the operation of such a vast economic-financial system comes at a high cost.

Let’s not even get started on the central bank-commercial bank setup. For example, a China Merchants Bank needs a head office, a province bank, a city bank, a branch, and a branch; commercial outlets require ATM machines and a money transit system, and Internet banking requires an app. This huge bank payment system for China has a large economic volume that must be sustained, but many nations and areas with smaller economic volumes cannot support the operation and maintenance of China Merchants Bank’s large payment system. To provide a comprehensive collection of current payment systems. Even mobile payment systems require substantial running expenses, to begin with.

For many countries and regions in the world, the GDP of a country is not as high as that of a province, a city, or even a quasi-first-tier city in China. GDP is high, but how can it support such a large payment system?

They want a contemporary banking system as well, but they can’t pay the hefty fees, so what are their options? Why is the blockchain payment system the best option? Because the blockchain system does not require the establishment of a central clearing system, a commercial bank settlement system, a money carrier, a vault, or any of these institutions. It just requires a digital currency wallet that is built on top of a set of public chain security and high-efficiency systems. Users’ real names can be verified using KYC ID verification in the DAPP in order to run a compliant digital currency or a compliant stable coin. In addition, the operation and maintenance of the DAPP can enable a payment mechanism.

Consider what would happen if a developing country or region lacked the resources to establish a payment system comparable to that of China’s commercial banks. For example, China Merchants Bank, but can we create a payment system for mobile phones that is identical to China Merchants Bank? Based only on the blockchain system, rather than the traditional bank system. To begin with, the development and operation, and maintenance costs are significantly lowered. Who will afterward look after the network in this nation or region? Not by this nation or area, but by the miners and nodes all around the world, as well as the individuals that keep this node running. So, how much higher can the price go?

To start, a fair estimate of building and running expenditures for a payment network the size of China Merchants Bank would have to be at least $100 million. Why can El Salvador’s payments be based on bitcoin when the cost of generating a stable coin with a blockchain wallet is so low? It is built on Bitcoin’s lightning network, which is a micropayment mechanism, rather than the local currency of Bitcoin. (Although the lightning network micropayment system is off-chain and insecure, it is already far less expensive than our old financial system, which includes commercial banks’ head offices, branch offices, branches, and money trucks.)

Proposal for the Central Bank of Nigeria

When the Qitmeer Foundation was preparing a proposal in Nigeria, it ran upon this issue.

Nigeria’s central bank presented a plan to assist the country in developing a contemporary mobile payment system.

Libra Solution: With the Libra-issued super sovereign currency, Nigeria should not employ the local central bank’s digital currency or fiat currency system.

Huawei Solution: Huawei cellphones are used by all Nigerians since they come with a wallet.

Alipay Solution: Build a payment network hardware like Alipay; the software and maintenance costs are estimated to be around $100 million per year to begin.

Qitmeer Solution: We can create a DAPP based on a safe and efficient public chain network to issue a sovereign digital currency, or sovereign currency stable coin, to the country’s central bank, and then KYC to the people. This project will cost about $200,000 to complete. Everyone, there was taken aback at the moment.

The Central Bank of Nigeria ultimately declined to adopt Qitmeer’s solution, not because they are concerned about Qitmeer’s technology, but because the Central Bank of Nigeria believes that the sovereign currency requires the control of the central bank, which cannot be provided by the public chain network at this time. They must continue to monitor the public chain network’s development and application. After all, only a few nations in the world offer central bank digital currencies, and the People’s Bank DCEP is still under testing and has yet to be officially introduced.

This is due to the efficiency and, most likely, the security, it’s been down on two occasions already. The Swiss central bank has produced a white paper on its digital currency, which has yet to be launched.

Understandably, Nigeria’s digital currency’s central bank isn’t ideal when it initially begins.

The blockchain-based payment system is a high-performance information technology tool for a developed country, but it is a very effective means for economically underdeveloped countries and regions to improve the efficiency of economic operations, improve financial inclusion, and strengthen the central bank’s monetary sovereignty.

The underlying Qitmeer network is completely decentralized, with PoW consensus to maintain the network’s security. Qitmeer’s micro-payment network is positioned to serve countries and regions with underdeveloped financial infrastructures, where mobile payment systems are in immediate demand, and the underlying Qitmeer network is completely decentralized, with PoW consensus to maintain the network’s security.

Blockchain payment system solves the problem of the financial system in underdeveloped areas

The Qitmeer Foundation has submitted suggestions for financial payment systems to around 16 central banks and is actively exploring and experimenting in a number of nations. In historically poor nations and areas, a reliable blockchain payment system can help them move from having no financial system to having a stable and secure payment system. The issuance of central bank digital money is, of course, both a technological and a political matter. As a result, the Qitmeer network will begin by issuing fiat stable currencies in these nations and areas. Then, in collaboration with payment businesses, banks, and financial institutions in these nations, issue stable coins that are controlled by the central bank, and employ the stable coin solution to solve the problem.

If Qitmeer is restricted to the crypto-digital currency circle, the consensus will undoubtedly be inferior to Bitcoin. The smart contract will not be able to do the same functions as Ether, but in the sphere of micro-payments, once a nation or region can utilize the stable coin based on the Qitmeer network to conduct mobile payments and micro-payments, the smart contract will be able to do so. The circulation of Qitmeer will rise at an exponential rate.

When the mobile payment system was originally introduced in Wa, the locals presumably had no idea what Qitmeer or Meer meant, but they needed to have GAS fees (MEER) on hand in order to utilize the system. Why? Because gas fees are payments made by users to offset the computational energy required to process and confirm blockchain transactions. The greatest quantity of gas (or energy) you’re prepared to spend on a transaction is referred to as a “gas limit.”

Stable Coins in the Blockchain World

On the Qitmeer network, there will always be more than three sovereign digital currencies or fiat-based stable coins. The first is for mobile payments, followed by micropayments, and so on.

So, what does the increase in addresses of bitcoin users imply? We can look at the global data of valid addresses of coin holders: bitcoin has more than 20 million addresses, Ethereum has about 100 million addresses, and their current application is still limited to the level of crypto digital currency, not breaking through the crypto digital currency circle; we can also look at another set of data: who is using the currency transaction amount or the largest single currency transaction amount in crypto digital currency? In terms of trading volume or individual coins, the USDT and USDC are the largest cryptocurrencies, with a combined issuance of almost $140 billion, but what is the trade volume? Only one stablecoin, USDT, has a trading volume that exceeds the whole market value of the top few cryptocurrencies. Why is there such a big trade volume? It’s because USDT is currently acting as a trading medium for crypto-digital currencies and fiat currencies, and everyone is trading in and out of crypto-digital currencies with this stablecoin, which is only used by tens of millions of people in the crypto-asset circle, which is close to 100 million.

What type of a number of transactions would there be if USDT or one of the stable currencies, such as WeChat and Alipay, could be used for micro-payments in everyday life, such as paying phone bills, purchasing groceries, noodles, and oil, and transferring money between each other for daily payments? Qitmeer’s positioning is based on the fact that the micro-payment market is large enough, and a micro-payment system built on a high-performance network and a compliant stable coin is in demand in these developing nations and regions, and this demand is based on a totally decentralized network. The Qitmeer network’s scalability and decentralization will enable it to be widely used in the future. It is based on a fully decentralized network that can be used by any country or financial institution, and the underlying layer of this network is not controlled by any person, institution, or country.

The fundamental reason for Qitmeer’s decision to position micro-payments is that, based on the premise of complete decentralization and security of the underlying network, it has been chosen to be promoted and used in regions and countries with immediate needs, so that the value of Qitmeer’s underlying network can be brought into play and the technology can truly solve the problem of financial inclusion for people in more countries and regions, while also saving them money. The performance of Qitmeer’s network is now on the chain, that is, the performance of the pure chain, which is predicted to reach 3000 or even 6000 tps based on current statistics. Qitmeer not only employs Block DAG technology on current chains, but it can also do lightning network technology (chain plus chain), allowing the network to run 10 times or even 100 times better.

The Qitmeer team is passionate about high-performance network applications, as well as total decentralization of the underlying layer and security. To perform micro-payments on this basis is to allow this technology to be used effectively. Only by combining these performance and application scenarios will individuals in undeveloped nations and areas be able to address the payment system challenge. Running in this direction, technical qualities have the potential to ensure that the above will be applied throughout time. The number of practical users continues to rise as the network is put to use. The value of the Qitmeer network can be really played out, or truly exploited, in the future and then by other nations, regions, financial businesses, and organizations to use.

Next Generation Payment Network Infrastructure

Qitmeer is positioned to be the next-generation payment network’s infrastructure. The purpose of this infrastructure is to create a compliant fiat stable coin based on the network, not to bet on how hot this coin is. In accordance with local policy regulations that can help local governments, local countries, or local financial institutions handle challenges. This approach is totally decentralized, has a cheap cost, and is quite effective at solving issues. It is expected that certain technologies and applications will be the first to become feasible in a specific nation or region and that this will encourage more people to utilize them. This network will eventually attract a big number of apps for stablecoin mutual settlement as well as a large number of applications for micropayments. When assets are not controlled by specific institutions or groups, they can be used by anyone. In comparison to traditional payment systems, this system is not only practical and low-cost but also very efficient in meeting the immediate needs of those financial institutions. It is a very good payment tool, and the value can be played out.

It could take a while to understand why the Qitmeer team is aiming for security, decentralization, and high speed in the underlying network. Because high performance must be accomplished while ensuring security and decentralization, this is the case. To discuss high performance directly, there is no security or decentralization. Certain organizations and groups wield considerable influence upon probability. Diverse financial organizations from many places and countries will be able to use the landing only when the security and decentralized environment improve.

Of course, the Qitmeer network is utilized for more than just payments; it also serves as network architecture. When it comes to micro-payments, this is the most noticeable and cost-effective performance. It does not imply that the Qitmeer network can only do micropayments or cross-border payments; in fact, any cryptocurrency can make payments if it can transfer funds. To really implement micropayments, two factors must be met: security and efficiency, as well as a cheap cost to support micropayments.

Qitmeer Underlay Gas Fee

“In the future, the Qitmeer network will have more users, the transaction volume will be enormous, the coin price will grow, can we still maintain excellent performance? Can we still keep the cost low?” a friend said. If the underlying currency of Qitmeer (MEER) reaches $10,000 (about $1500). The underlying network of second-layer tokens transmits Gas amongst each other at a low cost of roughly 0.1$ each transaction. Because Qitmeer’s gas fee consumption threshold is at least 0.0000145 (MEER) per pen, the charge should be slightly higher when transferring huge sums, but even if Qitmeer’s underlying coin (MEER) climbs to 1500$, the transfer cost might be 0.0000145 (MEER) per pen (MEER). The cost will remain low, but the efficiency will remain high.

The hardware of the physical network nodes can be upgraded, the TPS can be raised, the block size has been enlarged, and the bundled transaction volume of a single block can continue to rise, in addition to the performance of Block DAG itself.

Layer1 + Layer2 Expansion

Even if all of the chain’s options have been exhausted, you can still use Bitcoin’s Lightning Network (Layer1 + Layer2) to solve your problem. The Lightning Network sends key data to the chain or sends key data to the chain every hour, which means that all transactions do not have to be on the chain in real-time, and it may dramatically increase TPS and be used for payments.

Qitmeer network positioning micro-payment is a long-term business exploration, not a blind positioning. Choose a job in this discipline to play a role once the technological architecture and the foundation’s commercial resources align. Qitmeer network micro-payment scenario, primarily in the financial base of underdeveloped countries and regions, particularly in the “Belt and Road” countries, such as Southeast Asia, South Asia, and Africa, which have a large newborn population and a relatively high smartphone user penetration rate.

We will undoubtedly state that the smartphone has evolved? It’s impossible; it’s a joke! Everyone wonders how these places’ smartphones evolved, and this may be a circumstance that we don’t fully understand, owing to a Chinese company: the smartphone isn’t developed.

One is Huawei, which has installed a big number of infrastructure communication network base stations in these nations, resulting in excellent 3G, 4G, and even 5G network conditions in these telecommunications operating locations.

There are other mobile phone firms in Shenzhen, Transin and Xiaomi cell phones, particularly Transin cell phones, which sell well in Africa and South Asia. Why is that? Because these cellphones are inexpensive (about $50), the most costly (around $100), multi-card multi-stay, photo beauty impact is very strong, and the sound is extremely loud.

Because of Huawei’s mobile communication network infrastructure construction and the popularity of smartphones, these countries and regions can quickly use the mobile Internet and modern communication tools, as long as the user downloads a wallet, KYC can scan the code, and then, the development of a DAPP application can be these countries and regions to promote mobile payment work.

People in these countries and regions need commercial banks with head offices, provincial banks, branches, sub-branches, net banks, ATMs, and money carriers to use a bank card to access money, and the cost of establishing and maintaining this system is prohibitively expensive for these countries and regions. Just a mobile payment system based on blockchain technology can make these running expenses borne by the public chain’s maintainers, miners, and nodes, and users in these nations and areas need only utilize this DAPP to send money.

Then, on top of Qitmeer, these countries and regional governments pay a very cheap price. To solve the building of mobile payment systems, mobile payments, and financial inclusion, a secure high-performance public chain created by the compliance of stable currencies is needed. The cost issues are minor; this payment method and cost are perfectly compatible with their budget, and they are also fully capable of supporting them in establishing a payment network of this nature. At the same time, in addition to the underlying network’s maintainers, there are actual business users, network users, and code maintainers, and we all work together to create a distributed network. The network code developers could be in Europe, the United States, or China, and the underlying computing power could be in Canada, Northern Europe, or South America, but the underlying network’s users could be in Africa, Indonesia, South Asia, or Bangladesh, but they’re all part of a payment network. For example, a miner in China or North America may be transferring money to a coffee bean farmer in South America to sell coffee beans, or a hotel may be transferring money to buy groceries, and this is the true reason why Qitmeer is performing micro-payments and the market where it truly counts.

I believe that thanks to the Qitmeer network’s solid underlying technology, the Qitmeer Foundation’s commercial exploration over the past four years, and the community’s joint promotion, the Qitmeer network will be able to combine the value of the network with the advantages of commercial application and solving practical problems, allowing it to solve the financial inclusion problem for more people and bring the value of the network to more people.

About Qitmeer

Qitmeer is the next-generation public chain based on BlockDAG which is dedicated to serving the ecosystem of Islamic Finance, ethical finance, and socially responsible investment, thereby enhancing financial inclusion and creating social impact.

In contrast to the competition model, BlockDAG’s collaboration model in the mining achieves a desirable balance of typical blockchain metrics among the security, openness, fairness, and scalability.

Qitmeer adopts a classic POW consensus and UTXO data model and designs a unique asset issuing mechanism which requires the reserve of native currency, which is in line with core ethical financial values.